This article looks at the appearance of "ultra wide-band" in Tipped and Shaded Golden British Shorthairs. These are also known as Golden Chinchilla and Golden Shell.
英国短毛猫 British Shorthairs金尖点色=金贝壳色=Tipped Golden=Golden Shell金阴影色=金吉拉色=Shaded Golden=Golden Chinchilla带宽基因 ultra wide-band注：下文统一用金-尖点色、金-阴影色，望周知。
“铜色”这一说法是Linda Petersson Wahlqvist用来描述有着以下外观的金尖点色（金贝壳色）猫咪：白脚趾、白肚皮、尾尖长着尖端为深色（黑/蓝）的金色毛发、无深色眼线。
The term "copper" was adopted by Linda Petersson Wahlqvist to describe Golden Shell cats with white toes, white undersides, golden colour with the dark tips (e.g. black or blue) restricted to the tail tip and an absence of dark nose-liner.
These phenotype deviates from the standard for tipped cats, but is becoming prevalent in Russia and in some German lines of British Golden Shorthairs.
"Copper" is not an official term, but it allows breeders to describe the phenotype in a single word.
俄罗斯出现的极端金的现象Emergence of Extreme Golden in Russia
This section is an English language summary of information>一般呢，金化和银化现象都视作尖点色下的两种相关颜色。
Traditionally, gold and silver were seen as related colours belonging to the category of tipped colours. Ideally the tipping should not exceed 1/8 of the hair, and there should be no trace of tabby markings. This was achieved in silvers, but not in goldens. Typically, golden cats had ticked fur with 2 or more bands of colour, and they had residual markings including rings>
The new goldens that appeared in Europe were not ny11 (tabby-based goldens) they were ny25 (ticked-based goldens). The new goldens attracted a lot of interest in Russia. In adulthood the cats had extremely uniform tipping with no hint of a tabby pattern. There were no markings>
These cats had a huge advantage because they were closer to the “ideal” golden colour in the standard. But they also were deficient against the standard because the hairs were not tipped with the genetic colour (and the nose leather did not have a dark outline which should be present in agouti cats). The new extreme golden and new silver cats increased in popularity with many breeders being drawn into it, not always because they like it better, but because it was competitive and was “the way to go” to succeed at shows.
Some breeders tried to remove the pattern and to make the colour as warm and bright as possible. To accomplish this they outcrossed to genetically ticked tabbies to remove any trace of a tabby pattern. Ticked-based silvers and goldens still had ticked hairs (pale grey in the case of silvers, yellow in the case of goldens), but this was not detrimental to the overall effect.
Breeders, particularly in Russia, continued to select the brightest gold chinchillas to breed with and the brightest, most orange, golden cats had pale toes and pale markings around the eyes. Some cats were a pale yellowish gold with nearly-white toes. Some breeders worried that this bleaching turned golden cats into something else. Others believe that there is no really bright golden colour without some degree of bleaching. This caused debates over which was the true golden colour –gold with not bleaching, or bright gold with bleached toes and bleached underparts.
秋田犬 VS 柴犬
The bleached (or “excessive”) version was termed “Akita” after the Akita Inu (Shiba Inu) dog, and is also known as “copper.” Nobody stopped the breeding of the extreme golden cats with bleaching and the colour was seen as more distinctive than the ordinary golden-red colour, which was too much like an ordinary red-ticked cat. Many of the Russian breeders do not feel the need to separate the Akita/Copper cats into a new colour, but see it as a natural evolution of colour to create the perfect golden cat. Even the pale goldens are not a problem – while they may not be show-quality, they can produce bright red kittens.欧洲的情况 Investigations in Europe
带宽基因Wb完全独立于抑制基因 I ，但它本身是多基因遗传，只是用简化为Wb去描述。
Shaded and tipped (shell/chinchilla) are due to the dominant Inhibitor gene (silver) + presence of Wide Band + the Ticked Tabby pattern. In silver cats the dominant Inhibitor is present. In golden cats, the dominant Inhibitor is absent. Wide Band is independent from the Inhibitor gene and though "Wb" is treated as a single dominant gene for simplicity, it appears to act as polygenes with an additive effect. In ticked tabby cats without silver, Wide Band restricts the pigment to the end of the hair leaving a pale golden band between the skin and the pigment. Through selective breeding, this effect has been maximised. The variability of the wide band suggests we should talk about Wb, Wb+ and Wb++ to describe cats with normal, intermediate and greater degrees of Wide Banding.
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